梅慧玉。〈做醮與地方社會：以埔里兩次醮儀為例〉。《民俗曲藝》187 (2015.3): 211-96。
Mei Hui-yu. “Jiao and the Local Society: Case Studies on Two Jiao Rituals in Puli.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 187 (2015.3): 211-96.
本文以「通過儀式」（rite of passage）與「儀式化」（ritualization）概念探討埔里做醮的在地觀點。醮祭一般被視為是具有宇宙秩序重建、社區潔淨意涵的社群儀式，但此論點往往依據道士行儀演法而陳述，本文則從廟門外的熱鬧探討起，闡釋「做醮即普渡」與做醮包含了「如何做醮」的在地思維。「做醮即普渡」涉及醮儀與地方宗教社會公共性脈絡的連結，尤其是鸞堂化與龍華化的影響；不同範疇的行動者「如何做醮」展演了建構地方社會共同體的儀式化過程，他們不僅進行競合協商的權力角逐，同時也因舉醮所設置的多元實踐場域而體驗交融狀態，完成各自所處脈絡的社群通過儀式。
The jiao is considered a community ritual that reconstructs cosmic order and purifies local community. That notion, however, derives from the display of Daoists’ ritual performances. In this article, I will investigate local perception in Puli on the jiao process from the perspective of “rite of passage” and “ritualization.” I will explicate the local cognition on “jiao as pudu” and “the presentation of jiao.” To say that “jiao as pudu” is to connect ritual performance with local religious community’s context of publicness, particularly the influences from the Flying Phoenix Halls and the Vegetarian Halls. Actors (partakers) from different coalitions perceive and enact the jiao in their own ways and demonstrate the ritualization process of constructing local communitas. They compete, cooperate, and negotiate in this contention for power. At the same time, through execution of jiao preparation in multiple ritual space, they embody a state of communitas and carry out the rite of passage in each own communal context.
The case study illustrates complicated dialectical relations between Daoist ritual performance and local society. The program of the Daoist ritual scheme (科儀表 keyibiao) is the axis of the entire jiao procedure. Its factual content and style, on the other hand, has to conform to local tradition. Although it is the Daoist(s) who set up the altar and perform the offering, forces from different contexts — including changes in local power structure, business competition between Daoist troupes and regional ritual conventions — all affect the ways a jiao is presented. In this study, I suggest that an analysis of the ritual experts’ performance is not enough to explain how the jiao transforms local society. It is also mandatory that we examine and elucidate conventions of the local religion and characteristics of ritual performance.