2018-08-28

神在此間:浙江鄉村醮儀召請科儀本中的空間觀念折衝


屈嘯宇、彭連生。〈神在此間:浙江鄉村醮儀召請科儀本中的空間觀念折衝〉。《民俗曲藝》201 (2018.9): 101-67
Qu Xiaoyu and Peng Liansheng. “Deities Reside Within: Negotiation of the Spatial Concept in the Summon Ritual Script of the Rural Jiao in South Zhejiang.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 201 (2018.9): 101-67.


Abstract

本文以流行於浙東南地區的醮儀召請科儀抄本香通觀為案例,討論民間信仰語境中道教經科與民間廟神之間的二元空間關係及其在儀式文本生成過程中的作用。香通觀的核心特徵是以「一地」形成的「反映」式本地廟神段落,以及由此和整體上的道經醮儀框架一起構成的「一地─三天」二元醮位結構。綜合五類「先生」所持抄本中醮位內容和儀式角色關係的梯次變化可見,香通觀的儀文形態是在「一地」、「三天」兩種空間視角的相互抵衝與協調之下,儀文編撰者以「都╱保」比例為主導要素,進行儀式內容選擇和組合的結果。這一選擇和組合過程與道教傳統及民間廟祀中的「此間土地里域真官」概念息息相關,這一概念的屬地性、仲介性與空間轉換特性使得道經與民間之間異質的空間觀念在雙向的「常╱非常」轉換和擴充中通過對話促成了具有空間二元特性的民間科儀的形成。民間道教儀式專家群體正是以這類科儀為媒介,在宗教菁英認知和民間儀式認知之間取得動態平衡,並成為地方社會宗教生態系統的關鍵成員。
This article is a case study of the Xiangtongguan, a Daoist jiao ritual script prevalent in southeast Zhejiang. I discuss the dual-spatial concept between the Daoist scriptures and local pantheon and how the concept influenced the inception of ritual texts. The core feature of Xiangtongguan is its Daoist cosmology of jiao ritual. It contains on the one hand a specific geographic area, which I called “the local,” that reflects the distribution of local temples and deities; on the other hand a dual structure of ritual placement constituted by “the local” and the “three heavens.” Based on analysis of changes occurring in stages of jiao ritual placement and relations of ritual characters found in manuscripts collected from five kinds of “Masters,” I conclude that the morphological characteristics of the Xiangtongguan text was a result of the negotiation between perspectives of “the local” and “the three heavens.” Editors of the scriptures employ the “district/settlement” framework as a guideline to select and integrate the ritual content. This process of choice and integration is closely related with the concept of “True Official of This Land and District” of the Daoist tradition and temple worship of folk religion. The territorial, intermediary and space-conversional characteristics of “True Official of This Land and District” enabled the heterogeneous spatial concepts between the Daoist scriptures and folk religion practices to negotiate during the conversion and expansion of “order/disorder.” Eventually, they propel the forming of a ritual text with dual spatial spheres. It is with this kind of ritual texts that local Daoist ritualists maintain a balance between elite religious knowledge and local ritual experience, and become crucial members of the local social-religious ecosystem.