鍾雲鶯。〈越南寶山奇香教派及其傳衍――以「四恩孝義」為探討核心〉。《民俗曲藝》190 (2015.12): 67-127。
Chung Yun-ying. "The Sect and Lineage of Buu Son Ki Huong in
A Discussion Centered on Tu An Hieu Nghia." Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 190 (2015.12):
The subject of this study is the religious sect and lineage of Buu Son Ki Huong in
with an emphasis on the Tu An Hieu Nghia sect that preserved many mandarin
The four characters Buu Son Ki Huong stand for the sect’s lineage. The identity of Buu is still uncertain. “Son” refers to Doan Minh Huyen, who established the Buu Son Ki Huong sect. “Ki” is the founding leader of Tu An Hieu Nghia, Ngo Loi. Huong is unanimously considered to be Ta Ponl. Although Phat Giao Hoa Hao founded by Huynh Phu So is not identified here, the followers claimed themselves to belong to the same lineage. Their claim is rejected by the Tu An Hieu Nghia followers. However, when we examine them according to their Buddhist notions, we find the doctrines of Phat Giao Hoa Hao closely resemble that of Doan Minh Huyen’s Buu Son Ki Huong.
Within the Tu An Hieu Nghia sect, the followers have kept several morality books written in mandarin Chinese. This deserves scholars’ attention, especially because the sect worships Lord Guan as their major deity. Their practice of filial piety is different from that of Chinese patrilineal society. In the followers’ houses, sacrifices are offered to both patrilineal and matrilineal ancestor tablets. This is a feature of the Tu An Hieu Nghia sect.
Linh Son Hoi Thuong Kinh is the primary scripture of Tu An Hieu Nghia. Its content integrates the cult of Guanyin, the incantation of Esoteric Buddhism, and Vietnamese folk religion. It shows that Buddhism is the very substance of Tu An Hieu Nghia. Because its doctrines and rituals are full of traces of syncretism, its religious concept is more complicated than that of Buu Son Ki Huong when it was first founded by Doan Minh Huyen.