陳天嘉、任定成。〈中國鬥蟋蟀博戲中的芡草與芡法〉。《民俗曲藝》175 (2012.3): 89-106。
Chen Tianjia and Ren Dingcheng. "Cricket Ticklers and Tickling Methods in Chinese Cricket Fighting Games." Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 175 (2012.3): 89-106.
Chinese use a special tool called qiancao (cricket tickler) to stimulate crickets’ fighting behavior and to increase or restore their aggressiveness in cricket fighting games. The meaning of qiancao has broadened with its raw material changing from Artemisia to rat whiskers and Gramineae. By analyzing tickling methods under ethological framework, we have found that ancient Chinese increased crickets’ aggressiveness by tick ling their jumping legs to induce leg spring, which conforms to the principle of displacement activity in ethology. The ticklers are used in the following four stages, regular training, pre-fight stirring, guiding and after fight stirring. Ancient Chinese realized the limitation of both a cricket’s aggressiveness and the effectiveness of a cricket tickler.