Wang Zhenzhong. “The Tranquility Festivals and the Five Sectors Organization of Huizhou since the Ming Dynasty.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 174 (2011.12): 17-102.
The Tranquility Festival (Bao’an shanhui) is an exorcist festival prevalent in southern Anhui, also known as Wenzhou (pestilence boat) Tranquility Festival or Danian (great annual) Festival, Bao’an Festival, or in short, Well-being Festival (shanhui). The Tranquility Festival has existed, within the jurisdiction of Huizhou, in Shexian,
The “five sectors” is a conventional geographical division and a network for temple fairs. It evolved into a fundamental local unit that handled public affairs beyond that of a single clan. In certain places, its functions were very similar to those of the literati association wenhui. However, the “five sectors” organization differs from the wenhui, mostly in their levels of literacy. In general, wenhui was organized by degree-holding (or at least educated) intellectuals. The “five sectors,” on the other hand, was composed of people who were sensible and capable of pursuing interests for their locality. Therefore, in poorly educated areas, the “five sectors” network also functioned like wenhui and served as the most important council institution. According to the usual evolution stages of local network, in order to handle public community affairs, the “five sectors” network most likely appeared first. Later, when literacy and education reached a certain level, the wenhui started to appear and gradually replaced “five sectors” to become the most important council institution. Other than lineages and wenhui, the “five sectors” represented an original form of local fundamental network. This is an issue which previous studies on Huizhou have never touched on.