2018-12-21

海外覓鄉音:檳城福建歌謠調查及其在地記憶


黃文車。〈海外覓鄉音:檳城福建歌謠調查及其在地記憶〉。《民俗曲藝》202 (2018.12): 181-219
Huang Wen-chu. "In Search of Hometown Accent Abroad: Investigation of Hokkien Ballads and Their Local Memory in Penang." Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 202 (2018.12): 181-219.


Abstract

閩南語歌謠(福建歌謠)的調查研究屬於民間文學或閩南文化的重要一環,尤其當採集調查場域移至新馬地區,更能透過閩南語歌謠的傳播與變異,進行閩南歌謠的比較研究。如果我們更進一步把閩南語歌謠視作一種載體或文本,那麼透過「歌謠」的移動我們可以觀察俗文學或流行文化如何在時空位移過程中進行傳承性與在地化發展。
透過檳城地區閩南語歌謠的調查整理,可以發現檳城福建童謠、峇峇福建念謠,及傳統福建戲曲都還在當地持續念唱演出,這是來自福建原鄉的古調;然而進入當地華人第三代後,「反離散」與「現代離散」現象出現,海外移民開始融入當地文化和語言,所謂的「古調」也出現「當地語系化」情形,而新馬地區的閩南語歌謠或之後的閩南語歌曲,都可能因為時空位移與多元文化交融,在新馬逐漸唱出本地特色與娛樂記憶,並發展出一種帶着「追隨先祖輩文化記憶」的南洋鄉音。
The investigation and research of Southern Fujian (Hokkien) ballads is an important segment of folk literature and/or Southern Fujian culture. When we shift the research field to Singapore and Malaysia, we can, through studying the transmission and variation, conduct a comparative research on the Hokkien Ballads. Furthermore, when we take the Hokkien Ballads as a vehicle or text, then, through the migration of ballads, we can observe how folk literature or popular culture manages to pass on the tradition and localize its development in the changing process of time and space.
Through the investigation and compilation of Hokkien Ballads in Penang, we find the Hokkien nursery rhymes, Baba (峇峇) Hokkien Ballads and songs from traditional Fujian opera still active there. These are ancient tunes from their native hometown Fujian. However, after the local Chinese society saw their third generation, the phenomenon of "anti-diaspora" and "modern diaspora" arose. When the Chinese communities in Penang began to integrate into local culture and language, ancient tunes also faced a “dialect-localization.” Due to displaced time and space as well as multicultural integration in Singapore and Malaysia, the Hokkien ballads and modern Hokkien songs developed a “Nanyang accent” that, while demonstrating local characteristics and elements of entertainment, is still reminiscent of ancestral cultural memories.