高雅寧。〈從廣西西南三縣農曆七月壯族燒衣 (pyau ei) 儀式論壯族本土宗教儀式專家的傳承〉。《民俗曲藝》188 (2015.6): 55-108。
Kao Ya-ning. “Burning Paper Clothes Rites and Transmission Patterns of Zhuang Ritual Specialists in
Southwest Guangxi.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and
Folklore 188 (2015.6): 55-108.
廣西西南德保、靖西與那坡三縣每年到了農曆七月十四日，壯族家家戶戶會給正常死亡的祖先進行燒紙衣儀式。當地有一類稱為末婆╱末公的儀式專家，擔任神靈、祖先與鬼魂的中介者，也會在七月十四前後燒衣給已逝祖師（自己所承繼的儀式專家）及兵馬；凡有家人不正常死亡者，家屬會拜託末婆╱末公收為兵馬照顧並管束，以免危害家族或社區。本文的焦點是描述農曆七月在末婆╱末公家中祭壇所舉行的燒紙衣儀式，以及燒紙衣儀式中主要照顧與處理的對象。目前壯族儀式專家的研究，主要集中在各類儀式專家的授戒儀式、儀式的展演與儀式文本分析，少部分研究者關注神靈系統，但是對於儀式專家後續維持法力的方式，以及他們與信徒或儀式參與者之間的互動，缺乏更進一步的探討。筆者認為生者、死者、儀式專家三者，透過農曆七月的燒衣儀式，一方面維持了生者與死者之間的聯繫，另一方面也保證了本土儀式專家與他們的支持者群體之延續。筆者建議研究壯族本土宗教應該跳脫楊慶堃（C. K. Yang)「制度性宗教」與「擴散型宗教」的框架，而是從儀式中行動者間的互動，包括生者與死者、一般人與儀式專家之間的行動，才能了解壯族本土宗教實踐，以及其延續與擴展的關鍵。
Each year on the fourteenth day of the seventh lunar month, Zhuang 壯 households in the counties of Debao 德保, Jingxi 靖西 and Napo 那坡 in southwest Guangxi stage rites featuring the burning of paper clothes for the spirits of people who died normal deaths. Meanwhile, local Zhuang ritual specialists known as memoed 末婆 (female) and gemoed 末公 (male), who are the agents or mediums of deities, ancestors, and ghosts, conduct similar rites of burning paper clothes for their patriarchs and spirit soldiers. The extant literature on Zhuang ritual specialists tends to focus on initiation rites, ritual performances and analyses of ritual texts. Only a few studies pay attention to the Zhuang spirit system, and no studies exist on how Zhuang ritual specialists maintain and enhance their ritual powers, or the interactions between ritual specialists and people who participate in these rites. This paper examines rites for burning paper clothes at the household altars of ritual specialists on behalf of spirit soldiers who suffered abnormal deaths and might harm local families or entire villages. I consider how such rites on the one hand connect the living and the dead, and on the other hand ensure the continuity of local Zhuang ritual specialists and their supporters’ groups. This paper also attempts to transcend C. K. Yang’s dichotomy of “institutional religion” and “diffused religion” for studying Chinese religious life. Instead, I suggest that researchers may gain a better understanding of the continuity and expansion of local Zhuang religion through further investigations of the interactions between ritual actors, including the dead, the living and ritual specialists.
Also in Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore:
高雅寧。〈Ɂɐn1kjoŋ5、米、肉與靖西壯人人觀〉。《民俗曲藝》150 (2005.12): 27-68。
Kao Ya-ning. “Ɂɐn1kjoŋ5, Rice, Meat and Personhood in Jingxi.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 150 (2005.12): 27-68.