高振宏。〈日治時期大稻埕霞海城隍祭典的組織與審查制度研究〉。《民俗曲藝》186 (2014.12): 181-229。
Kao Chen-hung. “Study on the Organization and Review System of the Xiahai City God’s Temple Festival during the Japanese Colonial Era.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 186 (2014.12): 181-229.
In this study, I make use of reports from the Taiwan Daily News, supplemented by my field investigation, to construct the circumstances of the Xiahai City God’s temple festival during the Japanese colonial era. I approach the issue from two perspectives, the festivity organization and the review system. In the first section, I compare and analyze documents to disentangle the complicated relations between Xiahai City God Temple, the Hainei coalition, and Xiamen Chamber of Commerce Jin Tong Shun. It was the Chen family of Hainei coalition that brought the Xiahai City God to Taiwan. However, the temple construction and funds for festivities were either promoted or handled by Jin Tong Shun which wielded local power. The profits from selling paper cangues during the temple festivals were so huge that many representatives of the festival organization embezzled this money to line their own pockets. Jin Tong Shun had failed to suggest effective management solutions. As a result, severe clashes occurred between the Hainei coalition and Jin Tong Shun in 1918. Although a festival committee was organized afterwards, Jin Tong Shun still controlled the actual management. The only change was members of “Xiamen Chamber of Commerce Jin Tong Shun” had expanded from the original retail sellers to include local gentry merchants of Dadaocheng. Yet, both sides have still held a grudge against each other up to today.
The second section describes the Xiahai City God’s temple festival through the review system. The Japanese colonial era was a time when advertisements prevailed. Advertisements were considered an indicator of modernization. Under such circumstances, traditional festival palanquins were required to carry advertisements as well. In 1920, the Qianyuan Company took the initiative and invite officials, gentlemen, and news reporters to rate and give awards to the yige festival palanquins and musical troupes. Festival palanquins that featured a combination of traditional stories with modern advertisements won the higher scores. Whereas, judges for musical troupes showed a preference for banners and artifacts that best embodied the troupe’s sophistication. The competition represented a taste of the gentry class that gave priority to tradition, with an integration of modern innovation. This observation serves to reverse the existent prejudice that temple festivals tended to be vulgar in taste. The
festival of Japanese colonial era, led by the gentry stratum of the society,
demonstrated a composite outlook that was at once traditional and modern,
sophisticated and popular. The Xiahai City God and the Beigang Mazu are the two
paragons of temple festivities in Taiwan. In addition, the City God Temple
festival also drew population from other areas to Taipei. The relations and
alliances between temples and musical troupes, on the other hand, dispersed the
population of Taipei to other areas. Community interaction formed within the
island of Taiwan had encouraged connections and developments of economy and
people between different areas. City