張儷瓊。〈客潮二派箏樂小曲之形質流變〉。《民俗曲藝》184 (2014.6): 155-227。
Chang Li-chiung. “A Research on the Form and Character of Zheng Folk Tunes in Hakka and Chaozhou Music.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 184 (2014.6): 155-227.
There are numerous folk tunes circulating in Chinese society. These are pieces of musical art incorporated in the diverse processes of folk music tradition. The performance of traditional zheng absorbs folk tunes from different sources and re-presents them in multiple forms that belong to different schools of zheng music. In this study, I examine the folk tunes of the Hakka and Chaozhou schools of zheng music, compare repertoires of the two schools, and highlight the common context where they originated. I also investigate the current state of their forms and characters, including musical forms, tunes, musical patterns, performing techniques and performing manners. In addition to exploring the characters of folk tunes of zheng music, I also probe into the musical texts and their circulation through analyzing the relations between different local musical genres.
My study discovers that both the Hakka and Chaozhou zheng music were influenced by waijiang (other provinces) music and acquired folk tunes from diverse origins. From their separate ethnic musical background and aesthetic taste, individual features took shape. Based on my analysis, I conclude that, first; inclination of folk musicians to improvise on a set tune had caused musical forms and tunes to vary. Second, the differences in geographical, cultural and economical developmental background had conditioned the dissemination and preservation of zheng folk tunes in Hakka and Chaozhou music. Third, the inherence of musical genre and origins of these folk tunes are the most important factors that determined the zheng music’s vocabulary and style. Fourth, cultural communication between Hakka and Chaozhou people are critical factors that contributed to their zheng music’s shared tonal system. The above-mentioned historical and geographical factors and social influences resulted in the different forms and characters of zheng folk tunes of the Hakka and Chaozhou schools of music.