胡學丞。〈自會黨盟誓到就職宣誓︰近代華人立誓文化的一個側面〉。《民俗曲藝》195 (2017.3): 207-46。
Hu Hsueh-chen. “From Secret Society Covenant to Oath of Office: An Aspect of Modern Chinese Oath Culture.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 195 (2017.3): 207-46.
The development of modern Chinese oath culture can be traced from the Revive China Society (Xingzhonghui 興中會) to the Republic of China government in postwar Taiwan. This was the result of a synthesis of modern political thought and oath-taking systems as well as ritual elements of Christianity and Chinese secret societies. Following the establishment of the ROC, the religious facets of modern oath culture gradually declined due to the formation of modern political parties and the nation-state, with only residual traces of Christian and secret society practices remaining, yet the advent of the cult of Sun Yat-sen allowed for the presence of some lingering religious elements. In terms of the transformation of modern Chinese oaths, it is possible to identify two specific phenomena. The first was that the beings charged with witnessing oaths changed from divine to human; the second was how such oaths were dated, a result of the introduction of a new calendar after the ROC’s founding. There are two other special features of modern oath culture: the emphasis on the adverse consequences of oath-breaking and the raising of the right hand during the ritual. However, people do not always follow the rules when taking an oath, and such rites do not always exert a strong restraining force on the oath-taker. The paper concludes by stressing that the development of modern Chinese oath culture was not the result of one unilateral process but instead featured interaction between many different elements.