羅仕龍。〈中國「喜劇」《㑳梅香》在法國的傳譯與改編〉。《民俗曲藝》189 (2015.9): 63-117。
Lo Shih-lung. “Tchao-meï-hiang: Translation, Adaptation, and Reception of a Chinese Comedy in France.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 189 (2015.9): 63-117.
法國漢學家巴贊（Antoine-Pierre-Louis Bazin）於1838年出版《中國戲劇選》，收錄鄭德輝《㑳梅香騙翰林風月》一劇，法文標題略更動為《㑳梅香，或作侍女巧計》。《㑳》劇是第一齣直接由中文譯為法文的「喜劇」，且在譯本中保留原劇唱詞。此本一出，法國漢學界給予高度評價，將鄭德輝比作十八世紀法國輕喜劇作家馬里沃（Marivaux）。中國文人雖認為《㑳梅香》「全剽《西廂》」（明王世貞《曲藻》），「不出《西廂》窠臼」（清李調元《雨村曲話》），然因《西廂記》在法國問世較晚（1872–1880年間出版），其於法國之影響反不若《㑳梅香》。晚清外交官陳季同的法文著作《中國人的戲劇》（1886年出版），即以《㑳梅香》為例說明唱詞在戲曲裡的地位，並剖析侍女角色的形象與功能。另一方面，十九世紀晚期的法國也出現改編自《㑳梅香》的劇本。其中最知名者，當推「中國通」俞第德（Judith Gautier) 根據《㑳梅香》改寫的短篇小說，以及據此改編成的戲劇版本。1900年，《㑳梅香》以中國戲曲代表作之姿，登上萬國博覽會舞臺。直到二十世紀中葉，法國出版的中國戲劇選輯多收錄《㑳梅香》，並根據巴贊譯本修訂、重譯或節譯。職此，本文將分析《㑳梅香》在法國的各個翻譯與改編版本，以此為例探討元雜劇「喜劇」在法國的傳播與接受。
In 1838, the French Sinologist Antoine Bazin translated and published an anthology entitled Le Théâtre chinois (The Chinese Theatre), in which Zheng Dehui’s Tchao-meï-hiang (or Zhou Mei Xiang, literally “The Smart Housemaid Meï-hiang”) was classified as a “comedy.” Bazin argued that the Chinese theatre, especially the comedy, reflected Chinese social manners and customs. To the contemporary French critics, the charm of this romantic love story came from its elegant dramatic language and well-constructed plot. They compared it to Marivaux’s comedy and praised its delicate “Marivaudage” writing style. Little did they know that Chinese critics considered Tchao-meï-hiang nothing but a plagiary of Wang Shifu’s Xi Xiang Ji (“The Story of the Western Wing”). The French critics’ misinformed judgment resulted from the much-delayed translation of Xi Xiang Ji, by Stanislas Julien, published posthumously between 1872-1880.
In his French work, Le Théâtre des Chinois: étude de mœurs comparées (“The Theatre of Chinese People: A Comparative Study of Manners,” 1886) the Chinese diplomat Tcheng Ki-tong quoted Bazin’s translation of Tchao-meï-hiang to describe the function of the songs in the play, and the image and purpose of the role of maids. On the other hand, adaptions of Tchao-meï-hiang also appeared in the late 19th century. The most notable among them is Judith Gautier’s short story, and the play script based on it. In 1900, a new translation of Tchao-meï-hiang was put on the stage of the World Exposition as a representative Chinese play. Up until mid- 20th century, most anthologies of Chinese plays published in France had included Bazin’s Tchao-meï-hiang, either in versions revised, re-translated, or translated-in-part. In this study, I will examine all these translations and adaptations of Tchao-meï-hiang, and use them to analyze the reception of one of the most appreciated Chinese comedies in France.