汪詩珮。〈文本詮釋與文化翻譯：元雜劇《老生兒》及其域外傳播〉。《民俗曲藝》189 (2015.9): 9-62。
Wang Shih-pe. “Textual Interpretation and Cultural Translation: Yuan Drama Lao Sheng Er and Its Transmission to
.” Journal of Chinese Ritual,
Theatre and Folklore 189 (2015.9): 9-62. England
元雜劇《老生兒》為「家庭劇」，呈現彼時人情世態的悲歡離合，探討中國文化「不孝有三，無後為大」的子嗣繼承觀，連帶展現古人的家庭觀、宗族觀與祭祀觀，可視為表達其時社會風俗與民情的浮世繪。然或因其主題之保守性，近代以降此劇於討論、搬演、研究上皆乏人問津。值得注意的是，《老生兒》也是首部直接從中文原典譯為英文的元雜劇，由英人德庇時（John Francis Davis, 1795–1890）於1817年譯出，並寫了一篇長序，介紹中國戲劇及劇場展演。德氏為何挑選《老生兒》作為第一本中國戲劇譯作？其擇選的眼光、翻譯的手法、處理文化差異的方式，能否回應「跨文化交流」之初的磨合？本文第一部份將從《老生兒》的文本詮釋出發，探討不同版本的變化如何影響劇本的人物、敘事與主題；第二部分則討論德庇時的譯本，兼及他看待中國戲劇的眼光，試圖從文化翻譯的角度，理解中西早期戲劇交流與跨文化閱讀時的觀點與側重。
Yuan zaju Lao Sheng Er is a family play, exhibiting “the joy and sorrow, the separation and reunion” of the common life during 13th and 14th century. This play depicting the lack of a son as a breach of filial piety in Chinese culture, gives shape to the concepts of the lineage, the patriarchy, and the ancestor worship in the ancient society. Due to its seemingly conservative theme, very little scholarly attention has been paid to it. However, it is noteworthy that Lao Sheng Er is the first Yuan play which was translated into English directly from the Chinese text, by John Francis Davis (1795-1890) of
also wrote a long introduction discussing Chinese drama and its theatrical
tradition. Then, why did Davis choose this play as his first introductory work
of Chinese drama to England? In what ways did his selection, translation and
treatment of cultural differences respond to the problems of cross-cultural
transmission? The first part of this paper will begin with textual
interpretation of Lao Sheng Er and
try to explore how the different editions influence the dramatis personae, the
plot, and its subject matter. The second part will analyze Davis’ English
translation as well as his viewpoints on Chinese drama, in the context of
cultural translation. Davis
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