連瑞枝。〈神靈、龍王與官祀：以雲南大理龍關社會為核心的討論〉。《民俗曲藝》187 (2015.3): 105-54。
Lian Ruizhi. “Spirits, Dragon Kings and State Cult: An Examination of Religion and Local Society in Dali, Yunnan.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 187 (2015.3): 105-54.Abstract
This paper, by analyzing the processes by which indigenous spirits were transformed into ritually orthodox guardians, examines on how religious life in late imperial Dali 大理 (Yunnan) ended up being reconstructed due to the impact of ethnic politics. During the Ming dynasty, local spirits of various origins became worshipped as guardian deities of the Buddhist religion and subsequently incorporated into the state cult. By analyzing four such cults located in the southern area of the Dali plain (a water spirit, the Blue Dragon Goddess, the ancient hero Duan Chicheng 段赤城, and the Tang general Lee Mi 李宓), this paper considers the historical processes by which they were converted into Dragon Kings (“nagas”) by Buddhist monks as well as state cult deities. At the same time, however, this paper also examines how different groups of Dali people (including indigenous ritual clans, native soldiers, Han military forces, and local officials) competed to have their spirits recognized as a means of legitimizing their status and influence in local society. By highlighting the processes of agency through which ritual orthodoxy could be defined, this paper demonstrates that the historical development of these four cults can help shed new light on local strategies of negotiation and social mobility, all of which contributed to the development of Dali’s vibrant religious life.