蔡欣欣。〈試論奠基歌仔戲活戲養分的「真本歌仔」《山伯英臺》〉。《民俗曲藝》181 (2013.9): 97-166。
Tsai Hsin-hsin. “On the Foundation of Improvisation in Taiwanese Koa-á Opera: 'Genuine Koa-á,' Shanbo and Yintai.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 181 (2013.9): 97-166.
When senior performers of Taiwanese Koa-á Opera recalled their early years of apprenticeship, they often mentioned a manuscript of “genuine koa-á,” which was passed down in their troupes from generation to generation. The genuine koa-á had to be memorized by heart and practiced constantly. It was regarded as the essential training for theatrical competence (such as reciting, rhyming, singing, and acting) that nourished a performer’s virtuosity and artistry to improvise. The “genuine koa-á” originated from “koa-á chheh” (a booklet of koa-á verses used for acting and singing), with the traditional narrative form of “sì-kù-liân” (the “four verse stanza” for singing and reciting). It was integrated with the performers’ artistry and expertise and gradually became texts with fixed plots, accompanying music and lyrics. Among these texts, the “kóo lōo” repertoire (historical drama and stories of heroes) and the “bûn” repertoire (lyrical drama) are the more important ones. With the keen competition within the “indoor stage” Taiwanese Folk Opera after WWII, the troupes further developed a new type of “genuine koa-á” that featured eight-verse stanzas, composed by the performers themselves or professional playwrights.
This study analyzes several episodic arias (chhah khek) from the “genuine koa-á” Shanbo and Yintai. The performers make use of these episodic arias when circumstances call for refined acting or humorous effect. Alternatively, the episodic arias serve to complement certain scenario or specific type-scene. Either lyrical or narrative, they become components of performance formulas (cham thâu). When a performer masters the content of cham thâu and has them imprinted mentally, he or she can apply them onto related or similar drama plots.