楊玉君。〈民俗畫的解讀與誤讀──以俄藏五鬼鬧判圖為例〉。《民俗曲藝》181 (2013.9): 223-64。
Yang Yujun. “The Interpretation and Misinterpretation of Folk Pictures: A Case Study of the Zhong Kui Pictures Held in Russian Museums.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 181 (2013.9): 223-64.
俄國於十九、二十世紀交界的前後十年內，收集了很多中國的年畫，其間的因緣際會歷來一直罕有人加以詳細說明。本文追溯這段歷史，自俄國民俗版畫的歷史發展談起，說明俄國在十九世紀下半期的民族主義思潮如何的影響了知識份子對民俗版畫的興趣。並且，在這樣的背景下，俄國旅人也開始收集中國年畫，其中最關鍵的兩位漢學家是阿理克（Василий Михайлович Алексеев）及李福清（Борис Львович Рифтин）。
During the decades that bridged the 19th and 20th century, individual Russians acquired a considerable number of Chinese woodblock prints, for reasons which remain largely unexplored. It is the purpose of this essay to re-trace the history of these acquisitions. I will begin by giving an account of the historical development of Russian woodblock prints. I will then describe how the late 19th century Russian nationalism helped to arouse the interest of intellectuals in Russian folk woodblock prints. Given this background, Russian travelers to
began to purchase Chinese folk woodblock prints. Two notable Russian
sinologists who were involved in woodblock print collection and research are
Vasily M. Alexeyev and Boris L. Riftin. China
Despite their enthusiasm, the intellectuals who collected folk prints did not always comprehend their meanings. In the process of deciphering folk imagery one often observes a tendency toward capricious speculation on the part of intellectuals that has little to do with the context of folk culture. Two sets of “Demons Frolicking with Zhong Kui” purchased by Alexeyev, currently held in the State Museum of History of Religion, serve as an illuminating example. After this acquisition, Alexeyev asked his Chinese teachers to write down the meanings of the pictures and had the notes attached to the back of the pictures. These notes frequently misinterpret the significance and betrays the Chinese intellectuals’ poor understanding of and demeaning attitude toward folk culture. Drawing on comparisons with the Russian lubki, I will investigate such misinterpretations, point out the dilemma of folk picture interpretation, and propose one way of reading and deciphering folk pictures.