范純武。〈民初儒學的宗教化：段正元與道德學社的個案研究〉。《民俗曲藝》172 (2011.6): 161-203。
Fan Chun-wu. “The Religious Development of Confucianism in Early Republican
: A Case Study of Duan Zhengyuan and the Daode Xueshe.” Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore 172 (2011.6): 161-203. China
The turbulent political and social setting at the end of Qing dynasty and the beginning of the Republican era provided religion an opportunity for further development. Early Republican China can be viewed as another peak for religious development, in which the most prominent phenomenon is the extreme prosperity of redemptive societies. Whether in terms of the number of groups, the social power that each group had, or the effects they exerted on the society, the importance of these religious movements was unprecedented in Chinese religious history. However, this aspect has long been neglected by historians, with today’s historiography too often overemphasizing new cultural history, history of mentalities, etc., with the study of popular religions remaining a minor stream within the vast flow of historical and social studies. This demands further exploration.
Sakai Tadao has noted the intimate relation between the flourishing religious movements at the beginning of Republican China and the backlash of moralism, especially the promotion of the traditional moral codes. This study shows how Duan Zhengyuan (1864-1940), a moral reformist from
Wenyuan County ( ), founded the Renlun daodehui (Society of Ethics and Morality), whose creed was to promote moral codes and maintain humanism. In 1916, the Daode xueshe (Moral Studies Society) was founded in Sichuan . The creeds of this society were to promote Confucian philosophy, practice humanism, promote world equality, and ensure world peace. These goals were widely accepted by the military, political, and social spheres. Moreover, the Wanguo daodedui (Universal Morality Society), founded in 1918, also worked on social didacticism, free educational institutions, etc., gaining the support of the people in northern Beijing . This essay intends to further explore these organizations and to tease out their creeds, practices, and implications, using discussions on Duan Zhengyuan and the Daode xueshe as a starting point to better understand the historical development of Confucianism in modern China . China